Authorized in 1979 and established in 1980, China National Environmental Monitoring Centre (CNEMC) is a public institution directly affiliated to Ministry of Ecology and Environment. The major functions of CNEMC are: monitoring national environment; spearheading the development of environmental monitoring technology; delivering monitoring information, reports and technical support to national environmental management and decision-making; and rendering technical guidance on national environmental monitoring.
The current staffing quota of CNEMC stands at 190, with 187 staff on regular payroll. Among the staff, one is an academician from the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE); 78% have a master’s degree or higher; 78% are under the age of 45 ; 77% are party members. With 18 divisions and offices, CNEMC operates with a sound structure consisting of four sections, which are business, technology, quality control and management.
CNEMC serves as the centre of network, technology, quality control, data (information) and training of national environmental monitoring.
To run the national environmental monitoring network. As the network centre of national environmental monitoring, CNEMC manages and operates the national environmental monitoring network, which covers several sectors and factors, such as air, water, ecology, soil, offshore areas, noises and pollution sources. CNEMC is currently upgrading the national environmental monitoring network (hereinafter referred to as the national network) from traditional monitoring to ecological environmental monitoring, striving to achieve the goals of building a national ecological environmental monitoring network that features land-sea integration, sky-land integration, collaboration at all levels and information sharing by the end of the 13th Five-Year.
The national network incorporates more than 2,100 air quality monitoring stations, 2,767 surface water monitoring sections, 300 automatic water quality monitoring stations and more than 40,000 soil monitoring sites. Since the powers of supervising the quality of national ecological environmental monitoring were reclaimed by the central government, the national network has been subject to the direct administration of CNEMC, which commissions local or social environmental monitoring agencies to engage in the operation/monitoring tasks of some stations. This move helps realize the idea of “examination and monitoring at the national level”.
To build a system of environmental monitoring technology As the technical centre of national environmental monitoring, CNEMC sets out to build the national system of environmental monitoring technology, fosters the technical routes of environmental monitoring, formulates/revises technical standards and regulations on environmental monitoring, leads research on the cutting-edge technology of environmental monitoring and guides the technical work of the environmental monitoring system. CNEMC has formulated and amended more than 800 monitoring criteria, measures and technical specifications, participated in several key special projects in the fields of water, air and major apparatus R&D, and won several national, provincial and ministerial sci-tech awards.
To control the quality of national environmental monitoring As the quality control centre of national environmental monitoring, CNEMC builds the technical system of national environmental monitoring quality control and quality assurance, and renders technical support, guidance and supervision on the whole-process quality control of environmental monitoring agencies nationwide. It builds and runs the national quality control platform and regional quality control labs, undertakes the technical aspects of the quality control of the national network.
To evaluate the status of national environment quality As the data centre of national environmental monitoring, CNEMC collects environmental monitoring data nationwide and assesses national environment quality. CNEMC compiles the Report on the State of the Environment in China, Annual Report on the Environment in China and Annual Statistic Report on Environment in China, as well as other reports on environmental monitoring every year to provide support to decision-making in the formulation of policies and plans for environmental management, evaluation and ranking on environment quality, and transfer payment to key national ecological zones. CNEMC publishes information about environmental quality, forecast and early-warning via all kinds of media, including newspapers, broadcast, TV, the Internet and mobile Internet, to safeguard public access to environmental information, as well as their right of participation and supervision.
To stage national training in environmental monitoring technologies As the national training centre of environmental monitoring, CNEMC draws up plans for national environmental monitoring technology training, prepares training materials and teacher database, and guides local training. CNEMC launches more than 40 training classes on environmental monitoring technology and practical skills for more than 3,000 people.
CNEMC has built up some key labs, including the key lab of environmental monitoring quality control of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, lab of particulate matter and atmospheric environmental monitoring, PM weighting centre of the nation network and Northern China environmental monitoring centre for dioxin as well as key labs of inorganic analysis, organic analysis, emergency monitoring, environmental monitoring device quality detection, biology and noise monitoring. The device assets on the account stand at 290 million RMB. CNEMC is equipped with more than 330 sets of large precision equipment and instruments, such as high-pressure liquid chromatography mass spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. With these instruments, CNEMC monitors and analyzes trace organic matter, environmental media trace elements and trace metallic elements, as represented by such persistent organic matter as dioxin. CNEMC boasts world-leading analysis capabilities in inorganic analysis, organic analysis and environmental emergency monitoring.